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Caleb Myers
Caleb Myers

Forecasting Principles And Practice Epub Format

Abstract:Economic forecasting is difficult, largely because of the many sources of nonstationarity influencing observational time series. Forecasting competitions aim to improve the practice of economic forecasting by providing very large data sets on which the efficacy of forecasting methods can be evaluated. We consider the general principles that seem to be the foundation for successful forecasting, and show how these are relevant for methods that did well in the M4 competition. We establish some general properties of the M4 data set, which we use to improve the basic benchmark methods, as well as the Card method that we created for our submission to that competition. A data generation process is proposed that captures the salient features of the annual data in M4.Keywords: automatic forecasting; calibration; prediction intervals; regression; forecasting competitions; seasonality; software; time series; nonstationarity

Forecasting Principles And Practice Epub Format

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Health forecasting is a useful tool for health service provision, but very few reviews on the subject exist. Some previous studies on health forecasting focused on very specific conditions, like ischaemic heart disease [23], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [24], diabetes prevalence [25], or aggregate health situations, such as emergency department visits [26, 27]. These individual studies adapted environmental, climatic and other factors as predictors in forecasting health. They are very specific and do not give information on general approaches that could guide the development of other health forecasts. An overview published by Ioannidis discussed the limits of forecasting in personalised medicine and focused only on challenges associated with this form of health forecasting [28]. A systematic review conducted by Wargon et al. [26] on models for forecasting focused only on the number of emergency department visits. More recently, a similar study was conducted by Boyle et al. [27], in which they reviewed and predicted emergency department admissions. The above-mentioned reviews on health forecasting had a very specific focus on emergency attendance. However, health forecasting possesses potential applications across a wider range of health issues. There is dearth of information pertaining to the many possible applications of health forecasting in relation to health service delivery. There seem to be no reports that have gathered the basic principles and procedures for developing pragmatic health forecasting schemes.

This paper describes the key issues of health forecasting; including definitions, principles of health forecasting, and the properties of health data, which influence the choice of health forecasting methods. It also identifies the values of health forecasting in health service provision, and further presents the general challenges associated with developing and using health forecasting services.

Many interventions found to be effective in health services research studies fail to translate into meaningful patient care outcomes across multiple contexts. In fact, some estimates indicate that two-thirds of organizations' efforts to implement change fail [1]. Barriers to implementation may arise at multiple levels of healthcare delivery: the patient level, the provider team or group level, the organizational level, or the market/policy level [2]. Researchers must recognize the need to evaluate not only summative endpoint health outcomes, but also to perform formative evaluations to assess the extent to which implementation is effective in a specific context to optimize intervention benefits, prolong sustainability of the intervention in that context, and promotes dissemination of findings into other contexts [3]. Health services researchers are increasingly recognizing the critical role of implementation science [4]. For example, the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA) established the Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (QUERI) in 1998 to 'systematically [implement]...clinical research findings and evidence-based recommendations into routine clinical practice' [5, 6] and The National Institute for Health Research Service Delivery and Organisation Program was established to '...promote the uptake and application of...evidence in policy and practice' in the United Kingdom.

The degree to which an organization is networked with other external organizations. Organizations that support and promote external boundary-spanning roles of their staff are more likely to implement new practices quickly [8]. The collective networks of relationships of individuals in an organization represent the social capital of the organization [38]. Social capital is one term used to describe the quality and the extent of those relationships and includes dimensions of shared vision and information sharing. One component of social capital is external bridging between people or groups outside the organization [8].

This textbook provides a comprehensive introduction to forecasting methods and presents enough information about each method for readers to use them sensibly. Examples use R with many data sets taken from the authors' own consulting experience.

The present work is structured as follows: first general information on energy related forecasting is given. Thereafter, the Big Data forecasting concept and the conducted benchmark are presented. Afterwards, the obtained results are shown and discussed. Lastly, the conclusion and outlook are offered.

Time series forecasting models aim to estimate the future values of a time series \(\y[k]; k=1,\ldots,K\\) at a specific forecast horizon H (e.g., 24 h) using all available information. For example, a forecasting model using current and past auto-regressive values as well as, current and past values of other exogenous time series (e.g., forecast weather data, calendar information) can be described by the functional relation:

We think that a more practical way of reducing maldistribution would be to establish a regional quota system of smaller practice areas. The current regional quota system focuses on the major areas. In the present study, the evaluation of sufficiency levels by SMSA indicates that areas of sufficiency and shortages currently coexist in the northern and eastern parts of Hokkaido Prefecture. In our viewpoint, therefore, urgent steps should be taken to place doctors in areas where our forecasting model forecasts that physician shortages could occur in the future.


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