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One dichroic material is a modern composite non-translucent glass that is produced by stacking layers of metal oxides which give the glass shifting colors depending on the angle of view, causing an array of colors to be displayed as an example of thin-film optics. The resulting glass is used for decorative purposes such as stained glass, jewelry and other forms of glass art. The commercial title of "dichroic" can also display three or more colors (trichroic or pleochroic) and even iridescence in some cases. The term dichroic is used more precisely when labelling interference filters for laboratory use.


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Another dichroic glass material first appeared in a few pieces of Roman glass from the 4th century and consists of a translucent glass containing colloidal gold and silver particles dispersed in the glass matrix in certain proportions so that the glass has the property of displaying a particular transmitted color and a completely different reflected color, as certain wavelengths of light either pass through or are reflected.[1] In ancient dichroic glass, as seen in the most famous piece, the 4th-century Lycurgus cup in the British Museum, the glass has a green color when lit from in front in reflected light, and another, purple-ish red, when lit from inside or behind the cup so that the light passes through the glass. This is not due to alternating thin metal films but colloidal silver and gold particles dispersed throughout the glass, in an effect similar to that seen in gold ruby glass, though that has only one color whatever the lighting.[2][3]

Modern dichroic glass is available as a result of materials research carried out by NASA and its contractors,[4] who developed it for use in dichroic filters. However, color changing glass dates back to at least the 4th century AD, though only very few pieces, mostly fragments, survive. It was also made in the Renaissance in Venice and by imitators elsewhere; these pieces are also rare.[5]

A plate of dichroic glass can be fused with other glass in multiple firings. Due to variations in the firing process, individual results can never be exactly predicted, so each piece of fused dichroic glass is unique.[7] Over 45 colours of dichroic coatings are available to be placed on any glass substrate.[6]

Images can be formed by removing the dichroic coating from parts of the glass, creating everything from abstract patterns to letters, animals, or faces. The standard method for precision removal of the coating involves a laser.[citation needed]

Dichroic glass is specifically designed to be hotworked but can also be used in its raw form. Sculpted glass elements that have been shaped by extreme heat and then fused together may also be coated with dichroic afterwards to make them reflect an array of colors.

The corporate headquarters of in Seattle, Washington, incorporates dichroic glass into the exterior of its high-rise building, reflecting light into various colors that depend on the time of day.[9]

The Museum at Prairiefire[10] in Overland Park, Kansas,[11] which opened in May 2014, is devoted primarily to natural history. It borrows displays from larger museums and hosts at least two major traveling exhibits per year. Its striking glass exterior was designed to reference the intentional prairie fires[12] that were an integral part of farming life in Kansas. The glass is dichroic, which means that its color changes with the light of the day. The museum is itself a work of art.[13]

This glass displays 2 different colors depending what angle you are looking at, and the lighting conditions. This is because the glass is created by stacking micro layers onto the glass, each side has different colors added to it creating the two toned effect.

NASA revitalized the production of dichroic glass in the 1950s and 1960s as a means of protecting its astronauts. Ordinary clear substances cannot protect human vision from the harsh rays of unfiltered sunlight, and everything from the human body to spacecraft sensors and computers are at risk if left unprotected from the radiation that permeates space. The microscopic amounts of metal present in dichroic glass make it an effective barrier against such harmful radiation.

The NASA method of vaporizing and applying metal in ultra-thin layers has since become a widespread manufacturing technique, used in everything from special lighting fixtures to contemporary art. Jan Lewczenko, owner of JL Crystal Artistry LLC, based in Mount Pleasant, Pennsylvania, first heard of dichroic glass through a crystal vendor based in nearby Pittsburgh and has used it in his own work ever since.

Design options can include using this as a single pane of glass, or to laminate products like metal mesh or fabrics to create a striking and unique feature piece that will elevate any space with dramatic effects. Printing or backpainting are also customizable options.

Dichroic Glass is a multi layer coating placed on glass by only a very few manufacturers. Quartz crystal and metal oxides are vaporized with an electron beam gun in an airless vacuum chamber and the vapor then floats upward and condenses on the surface of the glass in the form of a crystal structure. Dichroic glass sheets may have as many as 30 layers of these materials yet the thickness of the total coating is about 35 millionths of an inch. The equipment required to produce dichroic glass is high tech and expensive, making the glass itself something that not all glass artists are comfortable experimenting with.

Not only does dichroic glass make unusual, colorful and just plain awesome jewelry, it fuses beautifully into bowls, platters and pieces of art that will add beauty to your home. A gift of Dichroic Glass will forever be remembered as that one of kind piece no one else will ever have.

Anny Caya is a Tracy artist working in fused glass. She creates layered pieces with inclusions such as dichroic glass, metal inlays, and decals. Anny designs for the home making both functional and decorative bowls and plates, decorative objects, and art jewelry.

Jon creates this particular wheel by slicing small shapes of textured dichroic glass, which is glass containing multiple micro-layers of metal oxides which give the glass optical properties. The main characteristic of dichroic glass is that it has very different transparent vs. reflective colors. The colors shift depending on the angle of view, and when looked through the triangle of mirrors of the kaleidoscope, it's truly compelling.

Jon wraps each small piece of dichroic glass in very narrow copper foil tape, carefully smoothing each side. Once he's accumulated deep trays of several colors, he then builds each wheel like a unique puzzle. Using forms he created himself, he painstakingly places the pieces so that there's an equal amount of narrow space between each one. This will enable light to shine through the wheel and for the second wheel to show as well, once they're both attached to the mirrored tube or body of the kaleidoscope. Once he's satisfied with this spacing, he solders the pieces together using lead solder, and then checks that the wheel is evenly weighted so that it will spin freely and not stop in any one spot. His last step involves wrapping a piece of lead came as a brim for the wheel. Once a large of batch of wheels is complete, he sends them to an metal plating company for either brass- or chrome-plating, an industrial process, and the final result is that each wheel's metal parts are equal in beauty to its glass parts. Beautiful!

Dichroic glass is glass which displays two different colors by undergoing a color change in certain lighting conditions. We use the term to also include three or more colors (trichroic or pleochroic), depending on the process used on the glass, though most is true dichroic. This glass gives the appearance of shifting colors depending on the angle of view. Our dichroic is processed onto either a clear glass base or a black glass base.While every effort has been made to accurately represent our glass products photographically, there may be some variation from the photo due to lighting and other environmental conditions.

Dichroic glass can be traced through history, as far back as the Roman Empire. Today, Bullseye dichroic sheets are favored by jewelry makers and glass fusers for their mesmerizing color-changing properties. Bullseye Glass is handcrafted in Portland, Oregon, USA.

Glass that is one color when seen by reflected light and another color when light shines through it. This is sometimes due to the presence of minute quantities of colloidal gold. Today, some glassmakers achieve a similar effect by applying a dichroic coating to glass that otherwise would not have this property.

The first type is the group of Roman glasses exemplified by the Lycurgus Cup. I know of a total of eight or nine such pieces. All but the Lycurgus Cup are only fragments. These glasses exhibit true dichroisim; they have different colors when viewed by transmitted or reflected light. In the case of the Lycurgus Cup, it is a pea-soup green by reflection and magenta by transmission. The other examples show different color pairs, but owe their dichroism to the same chemical effect. All of these glasses contain minute levels of colloidal gold and/or silver. Their dichroism is the result of light scattering. It is the effect known as Mie scattering, in contrast to Rayleigh scattering which is commonly observed in nature. We have duplicated all of the coloring pairs found in the fragments mentioned above in the laboratory by introducing minute levels of gold and/or silver into glasses.

These two quite different physical and chemical effects are both logically described as being dichroic. While there are numerous other captivating color effects observed in other types of both ancient and modern glasses, none of them, in my opinion, should be called "dichroic". Such effects as iridescence and fluorescence are caused by entirely unrelated physical and chemical effects and do not even fit the derivation of the word "dichroic". That holds for the iridescence caused by weathering on ancient glasses as well as for the iridescence of thin surface films deposited on modern glasses by sprays or vapor deposition. 041b061a72

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